The Technical Side of Green


There probably isn’t a person big or small that doesn’t like the view of a lush countryside, bubbling brook, or vibrancy of the Fall colors in the Midwest to brighten his or her day. “Natural elements grab and hold our attention in effortless ways, even in urban settings,” and this has a profound beneficial effect on us according to research by Dr. William Sullivan, Professor and Head of the Department of Landscape Architecture at University of Illinois.  In his book chapter* entitled, “In Search of a Clear Head,” Dr. Sullivan shares research supporting the premise that:

It is clear that being in or looking onto a green space can improve people’s ability to focus their attention. But is the effect of green space on attention useful to a variety of people under a variety of circumstances? The evidence shows that a wide range of people benefit from exposure to green spaces. Studies have demonstrated links between green spaces and higher performance on attentional tasks in public housing residents, AIDS caregivers, cancer patients, college students, prairie restoration volunteers, and employees of large organizations.

Green spaces help us to recover from mental fatigue, help us make better decisions, and behave with less irritability. Simply put for our homes, work, schools, and communities:

               We need nature at every doorstep!

Further, the more senses that are engaged, generally the more stress reduction occurs as well. In one study, students looking out a classroom window onto a natural space had the power to improve test accuracy TENFOLD! So why are we sending students into windowless classrooms? This is something important to think about as we craft study and workspaces at home and in our communities.

So you might ask if these benefits would include an adult playing golf? A child engaged in athletic team sports? “Yes” for the golf although probably more from the exercise than the putting “greens,” and “No” for outdoor sports. Although the playing field may be a green space and it is usually good to be outdoors, the benefits are better during unstructured activities. Better examples would include walking in display gardens (!), growing a few vegetables, viewing natural waterways, and even observing animals in their native habitats. Taking a walk outside is generally a good idea for many reasons yet in another study, only students who walked in an arboretum showed statistically better test scores than ones who walked in the downtown area of their college town.**

To boost the restorative benefits of everyday contact with gardens and green spaces, view and actively engage in those spaces around you. Such is the heart of the Master Gardener program at Cooperative Extension Offices throughout the United States!  Trained volunteers engage the public in educational, exploratory, and experiential gardening activities:  the fun and heart of what we do as Master Gardeners for persons young and old. A little “dose of nature” is a great low-tech idea for all of us.

Julie, O.T.

Advanced Master Gardener

*Fostering Reasonableness: Supportive Environments for Bringing Out Our Best; Edited by Rachel Kaplan and Avik Basu.

**Based upon William Sullivan’s lecture entitled “Attention Restoration” presented at Gardens that Heal: A Prescription for Wellness; Chicago Botanical Garden, 5.10.17.

brook, bubbling, Fall, Midwest, Indiana, Master Gardener, photo, yellow, orange, green, rocks, river, stream, Pufferbelly, Trail, Path



Gardens can help us heal

Chicago Botanical Garden, occupational therapist, Gardens that Heal, Prescription for Wellness, Healthcare, Design, Landscape Architecture, hospitals, nursing homes, design

This past Spring I had the opportunity to attend the opening day of the eight-day Healthcare Garden Design Certificate of Merit Program at the exquisite Chicago Botanic Garden. Have you seen the garden?  For me, it was just what the Doctor ordered!

Our day began with total immersion in the world of landscape architecture and garden design in healthcare settings. Most of the presentations focused on hospital environments designed to provide solace for patients, their families, and staff.  The concept of healing gardens began in 1984 with the perspective that views to nature can have a positive influence on health outcomes and even have the potential to reduce medical mistakes from stressed-out caregivers.

I found the pictures of several children’s gardens to be most enchanting and creative. These fantasy retreats with both semi-private and private spaces included stepping stones, water features, telescopes, cubby-hole windows, hidden stone creatures (that staff often moved around periodically for fun!), a visitor’s log book, and figure 8 walking paths.  Where the services of occupational, recreational, or horticultural therapists were available, programs included “enabling” garden experiences with hands-on activities.  Examples from senior and nursing centers were also especially meaningful to me from my past work as an occupational therapist.

Perhaps we would agree as Master Gardeners that gardens, green spaces, and plants are almost always a good idea for all kinds of indoor and outdoor living spaces. Barriers often include the costs of installation and maintenance in addition to a lack of space.  Projects require answers to questions from:  Who will do the technical work of planning the design? to What volunteers will pull weeds for the next 10 years?  And what if the spaces change due to facility expansion, staffing changes, or they simply don’t work over time for the clients who frequent the area?  I realized how much common sense factors into the creation of a successful healthcare design project when viewing slides of gardens designed by an “artist” vs a “landscape architect” (the latter working with the staff of a particular facility).  The difference was striking:  a series of concrete settees along an angular path probably seemed beautiful to the artist and won accolades from hospital administrators.  But the space was cold, uninviting and difficult to navigate whether using mobility devices or simply trying to get from one part of the courtyard to the other.  Never minimize the value of a few folks walking through a design together and including potential users of the space.

Claire Cooper Marcus of summed up the dilemma of poorly designed and maintained gardens in healthcare quite succinctly in the following statement:

“If they can’t keep the plants alive, how will they care for me?”

A better design philosophy came from Horticulture Therapist Teresia Hazen and Landscape Architect Brian Bainnson. The space should express the desire to:

“Sit. Stay.  Heal!”

Even local and national parks have given consideration to human elements in the design of public spaces in a movement called “Park Prescription.” The needs for safety, social interaction, comfortable walking, and even privacy are important for persons of all ages.  Specific design features can include:  resting places, landmarks, shade, protection from excess heat or cold, interesting visuals, and “no trash.”  The bottom line for public and healthcare garden spaces is to meet the needs of the persons of all ages and abilities with their constituents for whom it was designed with an eye on the future and measure of flexibility too.  The good news is that there’s research to support these efforts and funding available too if we but dig a little (pun intended) for it, persisting beyond the barriers.  We must continue what we do best lest we fall into what Richard Boo calls “Nature Deficit Disorder.”  No one wants that, right?  Such is the power of a little garden fix!

Julie, O.T.

The view out the window

A few years ago I was working with a lady and her caregiver in a lovely home at the end of a tree-lined cul-de-sac.  The picture window in the great room at the back of her home looked out onto a park-like setting with a collection of bird feeders and baths at varying heights.  Feathers fluttered, birdseed scattered about, and splashes sparkled in the sun as those birds had a blast out there!  And the delight for my client was clear . . .

bird bath, 3 birds, splash, garden, summer, spring

She got it right.  I felt honored to be her occupational therapist in home health care to assist in problem-solving some transfer techniques as her condition continued to deteriorate.  I’ll call my patient “Sandy.”  She once worked as a Vice President of a large local car dealership.  Knowing her neurological condition was progressive, Sandy and her husband designed and built a completely accessible home long before the term age-in-place became mainstream.  I recall zero thresholds to enter the front door, wide doorways and hallways, an elevator for accessing the second floor, and more.  One key element was missing, however:  a mechanical lift to assist her petite caregiver in transferring Sandy from her recliner chair to her modified wheelchair.  Sandy didn’t want one however, which posed a grave risk for injury to her and her caregiver.  They decided to have Sandy’s husband continue to complete the transfer with maximum assistance.

I quickly learned that the focus of Sandy’s treatment would need to be on the tasks that mattered most to her.  Our treatment plan included training her caregiver in safe methods to provide Sandy passive and active-assist range of motion exercises, beginning when the patient was still in bed.  This positioning protected Sandy’s shoulder girdle and allowed for better body mechanics for her caregiver providing them.  When Sandy was out of bed, her focus changed to sensory delights for her abilities that remained intact:  a large T.V. screen cable-connected to her laptop and the outside world, hard candies, and her feathered friends just outside her window.  The last one was my favorite and the one that came to mind as I looked out my own sliding glass door this afternoon.

Splish-splash, they were taking a bath!  First one then two then one chasing away a third with the flaps of her dripping wings, oh my!  I was resting after a long morning of gardening at our local extension office when this simple pleasure caught my eye and my heart.  I wondered how Sandy was doing on this very pretty Fall day?  Oh how I wish she knew how much she taught me about savoring moments like these.  I am so grateful for the opportunity to share this insight with you as well.  Please take a moment to enjoy something like this today too, k?

Take care,

Julie, O.T.